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The materials

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Tognana’s products are made from top-quality materials and are guaranteed by a major, renowned and reliable brand

The manufacturing process applied to porcelain production is accurate and arduous. To the purpose of revealing the consumer’s real needs, tastes and expectations, the production phase is preceded by in-depth market research and meticulous studies on the technical characteristics of ceramic ware.

The final matrix is prepared from an initial idea that is subsequently developed and perfected.
Dies or gypsum moulds are then make from synthetic material or steel, depending on whether they will be used for die-casting, for moulding with mechanical lathes or for pressing with isostatic presses.

Come and discover the characteristics of the materials used to make our tableware.

Ceramic

Porcelain belongs to the ceramic family.

A ceramic object is anything made from a material containing clay or actually made of clay.
Ceramics can be course of fine.

This difference depends on both the choice of materials and the manufacturing process as well as on the temperature the object is fired at. Products ranging from porcelain to terracotta all belong to the fine ceramic category.

Bone China

Bone China is a very important type of porcelain that contains bone ash (phosphates) which, in a percentage of 45/470/0 together with 33% kaolin and 20% feldspars, gives the body a very delicate, ivory colour and the end product unique translucency and a lightness that can never be achieved by traditional porcelain.

Porcelain

Porcelain is the most important and prized product of the ceramic family. It is made primarily of kaolin, well-known in ancient China although it reached Europe no earlier than 1700. The main components needed to make a porcelain body are 50% kaolin, 25% quartz and 25% feldspar.

Porcelain’s main properties are its hardness (although it is fragile, porcelain is harder than common steel) and translucency.
These two results are obtained after first firing the body at 980 degrees and then firing it once again at 1400 degrees centigrade. The glaze applied directly to the biscuit – before firing the object for the second time – has the same composition of the body itself but the various elements are used in different proportions. One of this product’s great advantages is that it doesn’t “age”.

Stoneware

Stoneware contains great quantities of clay that can vary but are always greater than 80%. The remaining materials are feldspar and quartz. It is fired and glazed in a single process which is why it is defined as being single-fired.
The glaze colours of the resulting product are warmer and its porosity amounts to approximately 10%.

Fine stoneware

Fine stoneware is an important material and is made using “plastic clays” of volcanic origin skilfully mixed with the addition of kaolin (very malleable white feldspar rock). Fired at a high temperature, this mixture achieves a very compact and fully watertight consistency that, in theory, does not require water-proofing coatings.

Majolica

Majolica is made of a mixture of red clays such as terracotta and is twice-fired like earthenware. The resulting material is generally porous which is why it is coated with fired glaze.
If a self-vitrifying body is used to make the majolica there is no need to glaze it to make it watertight.

Earthenware

Earthenware is decidedly superior to terracotta and is made of white or ivory, rarely coloured, clay. Lots of objects are made out of earthenware: pots and pans, crockery, ornaments and other objects as well as particularly fine dinner services.
To achieve the finished product the body is fired to obtain the biscuit and then fired again after having applied the glaze.
There are two types of earthenware, i.e. “Soft” and “Hard” and their distinction depends mainly on the different firing temperatures of the clay and of the biscuit, as well as on the different compositions of the glaze.
“Hard” earthenware (ironstone) is definitely the best of the two because the two firing processes are performed at 1200 degrees centigrade against the 1050 degrees used to fire “soft” earthenware.

Terracotta

Terracotta is a simple type of ceramic used since ancient times because it is relatively easy to make.
Once it has been given the desired shape, the clay body is fired once only. This can even be done in a pit (not in a kiln). A clear example of the use of terracotta in ancient times was to make vessels to preserve and transport food.

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